Access controls protect MySQL databases so only clients with valid access credentials can access them. It’s important to set them up properly to reduce the attack surface and avoid unintended information disclosures.

With MySQL, it’s possible to limit database and table access to specific privileges (like SELECT to read data…

OpenVPN is a powerful open-source VPN server that’s capable of encrypting traffic on all supported operating systems. Let’s look at advanced configuration examples to use it to its full potential.

In our previous example, we put together a simple 1:1 client-server infrastructure using a shared key, no routing, and no…

Standard IO refers to standardized input, output, and error streams in Linux that can be read and written by all standard Linux utilities. It’s sometimes abbreviated as “STDIO”, while standard input is called STDIN, standard output as STDOUT, and the standard error stream is called as STDERR.

STDIO operations in the Linux shell

Most Linux commands…

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